Tuesday, March 24, 2009


Tea refers to the agricultural products of the leaves, leaf buds, and internodes of the Camellia sinensis plant, prepared and cured by various methods. "Tea" also refers to the aromatic beverage prepared from the cured leaves by combination with hot or boiling water, and is the colloquial name for the Camellia sinensis plant itself.

After water, tea is the most widely-consumed beverage in the world. It has a cooling, slightly bitter, astringent flavour.

The four types of tea most commonly found on the market are black tea, oolong tea, green tea and white tea, all of which can be made from the same bushes, processed differently, and in the case of fine white tea, grown differently. Pu-erh tea, a double-fermented black tea, is also often classified as amongst the most popular types of tea.

The term "herbal tea" usually refers to an infusion or tisane of fruit or herbs that contains no Camellia sinensis.The term "red tea" either refers to an infusion made from the South African rooibos plant, also containing no Camellia sinensis, or, in Chinese, Korean, Japanese and other East Asian languages, refers to black tea.

Friday, May 2, 2008

King George
King George has referred to many kings throughout history. When used, by Americans, without further reference it most often means George III of the United Kingdom, against whom the Whigs of the American Revolution rebelled.

King George I of Great Britain and Ireland
King George II of Great Britain and Ireland
King George III of the United Kingdom
King George IV of the United Kingdom
King George V of the United Kingdom
King George VI of the United Kingdom
King George I of Greece
King George II of Greece
King George of Bohemia
King George of the Duala people
George of Georgia (several)

Thursday, May 1, 2008

Bolingbrook is a village in Will County, Illinois and DuPage County, Illinois. As of the 2000 census, the village had a total population of 56,321. As of a 2005 estimate, the population is 69,662. Today, Bolingbrook has nearly 75,000 residents.

Bilborough College Geography
As of the census of 2000, there were 56,321 people, 17,416 households, and 14,246 families residing in the village. The population density was 1,060.2/km² (2,746.5/mi²). There were 17,884 housing units at an average density of 336.7/km² (872.1/mi²). The racial makeup of the village was 64.51% White, 20.41% African American, 0.23% Native American, 6.38% Asian, 0.06% Pacific Islander, 5.65% from other races, and 2.77% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 13.09% of the population.
There were 17,416 households out of which 48.0% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 66.5% were married couples living together, 10.9% had a female householder with no husband present, and 18.2% were non-families. 14.2% of all households were made up of individuals and 2.8% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 3.22 and the average family size was 3.56.
In the village the population was spread out with 32.3% under the age of 18, 8.4% from 18 to 24, 35.2% from 25 to 44, 19.9% from 45 to 64, and 4.3% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 31 years. For every 100 females there were 99.6 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 97.0 males.
The median income for a household in the village was $67,852, and the median income for a family was $71,527. Males had a median income of $46,915 versus $33,665 for females. The per capita income for the village was $23,468. About 2.9% of families and 4.1% of the population were below the poverty line, including 5.1% of those under age 18 and 6.8% of those age 65 or over.

Growth History
Illinois Route 53 - Bolingbrook Drive, Illinois Route 126
Interstate 55 and Interstate 355
Former U.S Route 66
Other Major streets include Boughton Road, Weber Road, Lily Cache Lane, and Briarcliff Road

Jaslene Gonzalez, America's Next Top Model Cycle 8
Steve Jaros, PBA Bowler - Major Champion

Bolingbrook, Illinois Schools
Bolingbrook has one airport which is owned by the Village and operated under a contract with a management company., Clow International Airport. WGN-TV Helicopter is stationed at Clow Airport as well as a base station for Air Angels Aeromedical transport. (life flight type operation)
Bolingbrook Medical Center which currently operates the only free standing full service hospital emergency room, was given the OK to become a full service hospital. The first new hospital in Illinois since Olympia Fields Osteopathic Medical Center and Hospital (now St James Hospital) opened in Olympia Fields in 1979.(Note other hospitals have been built in Illinois, but these new hospitals have replaced older hospitals) The emergency room is unique in that it is one of the few full service ERs in the country not directly connected to a hospital. It is a level II trauma center.
The current mayor of Bolingbrook is Roger C. Claar, who has served in that role for nearly two decades.
District 365U was originally known as District 94. It took it's present name when it became the first school district in the United States to implement the 45-15 plan where schools were occupied year round with 3/4 of the students in session at any one time. Students went to school for 9 weeks and had 3 weeks off. Teachers were optionally allowed to work year-round.
Part of the area where Bolingbrook lies today was originally known as "Barber's Corners", and before that, "Welco".

Wednesday, April 30, 2008

Part of a series on Libertarianism Agorism Anarcho-capitalism Autarchism Geolibertarianism Green libertarianism Left-libertarianism Libertarian feminism Minarchism Neolibertarianism Paleolibertarianism Progressive libertarianism Right-libertarianism Austrian SchoolAustrian economics Chicago School Classical liberalism Individualist anarchism Civil liberties Economic freedom Free markets Free trade Humanism Laissez-faire Liberty Individualism Non-aggression Private property Self-ownership Tax cuts Economic views History Movement Parties Theories of law Views of rights Criticism of libertarianism Libertarian Republican Libertarian Democrat The Austrian School, also known as the "Vienna School" or the "Psychological School", is a heterodox school of economic thought that advocates adherence to strict methodological individualism. As a result Austrians hold that the only valid economic theory is logically derived from basic principles of human action. Alongside the formal approach to theory, often called praxeology, the school has traditionally advocated an interpretive approach to history. The praxeological method allows for the discovery of economic laws valid for all human action, while the interpretive approach addresses specific historical events.
This Aristotelian/rationalist approach differs both from the currently dominant Platonic/positivist approach of contemporary neo-classical economics and the once dominant historical approach of the German historical school and the American institutionalists. Regardless, Austrian economics has made significant contributions to modern mainstream neo-classical economics. because of its emphasis on the creative phase (i.e. the time element) of economic productivity and its questioning of the basis of the behavioral theory underlying neoclassical economics.
Because many of the policy recommendations of Austrian theorists call for small government, strict protection of private property, and support for individualism in general, they are often cited by conservatives, laissez-faire liberal, libertarian, and Objectivist groups for support, although Austrian School economists, like Ludwig von Mises, insist that praxeology must be value-free. They do not answer the question "should this policy be implemented?", but rather "if this policy is implemented, will it have the effects you intend?".

Austrian economists reject statistical methods and artificially constructed experiments as tools applicable to economics, saying that while it is appropriate in the natural sciences where factors can be isolated in laboratory conditions, acting human beings are too complex for this treatment. Instead one should isolate the logical processes of human action - a discipline named "praxeology" by Alfred Espinas..
This focus on opportunity cost alone means that their interpretation of the time value of a good has a strict relationship: since goods will be as restricted by scarcity at a later point in time as they are now, the strict relationship between investment and time must also hold. A factory making goods next year is worth as much less as the goods it is making next year are worth. This means that the business cycle is driven by miscoordination between sectors of the same economy, caused by money not carrying incentive information correct about present choices, rather than within a single economy where money causes people to make bad decisions about how to spend their time.

Analytical framework
Some contributions of Austrian economists:

A theory of distribution in which factor prices result from the imputation of prices of consumer goods to goods of "higher order", that is goods used in the production of consumer goods (goods of the first order).
An emphasis on the forward-looking nature of choice, seeing time as the root of uncertainty within economics (see also time preference).
A fundamental rejection of mathematical methods in economics seeing the function of economics as investigating the essences rather than the specific quantities of economic phenomena. This was seen as an evolutionary, or "genetic-causal", approach against the stresses of equilibrium and perfect competition found in mainstream Neoclassical economics (see also praxeology).
Eugen von Böhm-Bawerk's critique of Marx centered around the untenability of the labor theory of value in the light of the transformation problem. There was also the connected argument that capitalists do not exploit workers; they accommodate workers by providing them with income well in advance of the revenue from the output they helped to produce.
Eugen von Böhm-Bawerk's capital theory, which equates capital intensity with the degree of roundaboutness of production processes.
Eugen von Böhm-Bawerk's demonstration that the law of marginal utility, as formulated by Menger necessarily implies the classical law of costs and hence the vast majority of the conclusions of the British classical economists. This discovery was later fully developed and its implications traced by a student of von Mises, George Reisman, in his book, Capitalism.
An emphasis on opportunity cost and reservation demand in defining value, and a refusal to consider supply as an otherwise independent cause of value. (The British economist Philip Wicksteed adopted this perspective.)
The Mises-Hayek business cycle theory, which explains depression as a reaction to an intertemporal production structure fostered by monetary policy setting interest rates inconsistent with individual time preferences.
Hayek's concept of intertemporal equilibrium. (John Hicks took over this theory in his discussion of temporary equilibrium in Value and Capital, a book very influential on the development of neoclassical economics after World War II.)
Mises and Hayek's view of prices as permitting agents to make use of dispersed tacit knowledge.
The time preference theory of interest, which explains interest rates through intertemporal choice - the different time preferences of the borrower or lender - rather than as a price paid for a factor of production.
Stressing uncertainty in the making of economic decisions, rather than relying on "Homo economicus" or the rational man who was fully informed of all circumstances impinging on his decisions. The fact that perfect knowledge never exists, means that all economic activity implies risk.
Seeing the entrepreneurs' role as collecting and evaluating information and acting on risks.
The economic calculation debate between Austrian and Marxist economists, with the Austrians claiming that Marxism is flawed because prices could not be set to recognize opportunity costs of factors of production, and so socialism could not make rational decisions. Contributions
One criticism of the Austrian school is its rejection of the scientific method and empirical testing in favor of supposedly self-evident axioms and logical reasoning.

Economists affiliated with the Austrian School

Richard Cantillon
Frédéric Bastiat (precursor)
Henry Hazlitt (introduced the Austrian School to the USA)
School of Salamanca (Renaissance precursors)
Étienne Bonnot de Condillac
Louis Say
Jean-Baptiste Say
Léon Walras
Jules Dupuit
Lionel Robbins
Wilhelm Röpke
Joseph Schumpeter
A.R.J. Turgot
Knut Wicksell Other related economists

Bryan Caplan
David D. Friedman
Tyler Cowen Seminal works

Tuesday, April 29, 2008

Claude Morin (PQ)
Claude Morin, born on May 16, 1929 (born in Montmorency, Quebec), is a politician from Quebec, Canada and was the Parti Québécois Member of the National Assembly for the electoral district of Louis-Hébert, from 1976 until his resignation in 1981.
A bachelor from the Universite Laval, Morin went to Columbia University in New York City where he had a Master's degree in Social Welfare.
He also served as Minister of Intergovernmental Affairs in the cabinet of Premier René Lévesque, from 1976 to 1982.

Sunday, April 27, 2008

Dimensional database Description
The relational database model uses a structure of attributes within tuples within relations to represent data (relations are erroneously referred to as tables in SQL-DBMSs). Tables can be linked by common key values. Edgar F. Codd first designed this model in 1970, while working for IBM, and its simplicity revolutionized database usage at the time. Codd's work was in many ways ahead of its time, as computing power could not support the overheads of his database system (Hasan 1999).
In the 1980s the power of computers had grown to the point where these overheads were no longer a problem, and today relational database management systems (RDBMS) are available on local desktops, as well as large organisational database management servers.

Why use dimensional databases?
Apart from the inherent advantages of using a multi-dimensional array structure, multi-dimensional databases also contain the following advantages.
Intuitive spreadsheet-like views of the data are the output of multi-dimensional databases. Such views are difficult to generate in relational systems without the use of complex SQL queries, while others cannot be performed by standard SQL at all, eg. top ten exam results.
Multi-dimensional databases are very easy to maintain, because data is stored in the same way as it is viewed, that is according to its fundamental attributes, so no additional computational overhead is required for queries of the database. Compare this to relational system, where complex indexing and joins may be used that require significant maintenance and overhead.
Multi-dimensional database achieve performance levels that are well in excess of that of relational systems performing similar data storage requirements. These high performance levels encourage and enable OLAP applications. Performance can be improved in relational systems through database tuning, but the database cannot be tuned for every possible on-the-fly query. In relational systems, tuning is quite specific, therefore decreasing flexibility, and also requires expensive database specialists.
In summary, multi-dimensional database systems are a complementary technology to entity relational systems, and in some circumstances it makes more sense to use multi-dimensional arrays rather than relational tables.
Where multi-dimensional systems excel over their relational system counterparts is in the area of data presentation and analysis, where the data in question leads itself to being suitable for multi-dimensional systems, such as where complex inter-relationships exist.
The top-level views of data over many combinations of dimensions make multi-dimensional systems particularly useful for trend analysis over time by management staff of organizations, due to te ease of viewing the data in a more naturally intuitive way.

Saturday, April 26, 2008

Harbison Canyon, California Geography
As of the census of 2000, there were 3,645 people, 1,274 households, and 983 families residing in the CDP. The population density was 140.0/km² (362.7/mi²). There were 1,311 housing units at an average density of 50.4/km² (130.5/mi²). The racial makeup of the CDP was 90.67% White, 0.47% African American, 1.78% Native American, 1.15% Asian, 0.11% Pacific Islander, 2.22% from other races, and 3.59% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 10.70% of the population.
There were 1,274 households out of which 37.3% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 63.9% were married couples living together, 8.2% had a female householder with no husband present, and 22.8% were non-families. 16.9% of all households were made up of individuals and 4.7% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.86 and the average family size was 3.22.
In the CDP the population was spread out with 27.4% under the age of 18, 7.1% from 18 to 24, 29.8% from 25 to 44, 27.6% from 45 to 64, and 8.1% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 38 years. For every 100 females there were 104.1 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 100.2 males.
The median income for a household in the CDP was $56,975, and the median income for a family was $60,913. Males had a median income of $41,058 versus $31,371 for females. The per capita income for the CDP was $23,914. About 5.1% of families and 4.8% of the population were below the poverty line, including 4.6% of those under age 18 and 3.6% of those age 65 or over.

Harbison Canyon, after its unfortunate encounters with wildfires, is best known among locals for the presence of a nudist resort, "Sun Island resort". Harbison Canyon is home to Old Ironsides Park, maintained by the County of San Diego Parks and Recreation. Kumeyaay Indian relics can be found near the stream that runs through the park and Canyon. The park also has a community center building where community and civic groups meet.